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Why holes are not like electrons: A microscopic
analysis of the differences between holes and electrons
in condensed matter

Phys.Rev. B 65, 184502 (2002),
cond-mat/0109385 (Los Alamos).
We give a detailed microscopic analysis of why holes are different from electrons in condensed matter.
Starting from a single atom with zero, one and two electrons, we show that the spectral functions for
electrons and for holes are qualitatively different because of electron-electron interactions. The quantitative
importance of this difference increases as the charge of the nucleus decreases. Extrapolating our atomic
analysis to the solid, we discuss the expected differences in the single particle spectral function and in
frequency dependent transport properties for solids with nearly empty and nearly full electronic energy
bands. We discuss the expected dependence of these quantities on doping, and the physics of
superconductivity that results. We also discuss how these features of the atomic physics can be modeled
by a variety of model Hamiltonians.

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